Regular examinations or checkups can help recognize the pathology even in the infra-clinic stage, which means without symptoms. An oncological check-up makes it possible to diagnose cancer before the first symptoms appear. The recognition of oncology in the early stages, before the onset of symptoms, is the guarantee of the best prognoses for the patient. Modern types of tests help prevent oncology by removing a factor that can evolve into oncology or provoke it, for example, in such cases as neoplasms in the cervix or colorectal oncology.
Onco check-up makes it possible to dispense with a milder type of treatment and give the patient a long remission.
Do not confuse checkup and examination with diagnostics, since the diagnosis itself can be carried out only with the help of a biopsy, which gives information about the anatomy pathology of an already formed tumor.
There are two types of checkups, the first type is a planned checkup or inspection, which is advisory in nature, it is registered at the official level and each country has its own plan, but the general recommendations are approximately the same in all countries, as they are established by WHO. For example, for women after 25 years, a smear test is required every two years.
There are also examinations based on the individual initiative of the patient under the supervision of the attending physician. Thus, based on risk factors, an individual checkup program is compiled.
After 50 years, every woman needs to undergo bilateral mammography and ultrasound every two years. Results should always be compared with past results to ascertain evolution. In France, the results are interpreted by two doctors to hedge and exclude the human factor. The radiologist who interprets the images must be experienced and well qualified!
After 50 years, a fecal analysis for immunology for both women and men has to be held every two years. This test is called Hemoccult, they also look for the presence of blood in the feces. If the test results are positive, then a consultation with a gastroenterologist is prescribed in order to conduct subsequent total coloscopy.
Most often, cervical cancer is provoked by human papillomavirus 16 and 18. Small neoplasms can still form in the pre-oncological form. To identify possible neoplasms from 25 years to 65 years old, it is recommended to perform a regular test for the presence of human papillomavirus and a smear. If there is a pathology, additional tests will be prescribed.
Vaccination against human papillomavirus is possible for girls and boys from 11 to 14 years old.
There is a category of people who are at a high risk of skin oncology appearance (epidermal carcinoma, melanoma, basocellular carcinoma), such people should be screened regularly.
An annual consultation with a dermatologist will help identify suspicious skin lesions at an early stage. Patients who are at risk – are people with a light skin type, the presence of relatives’ skin cancer or skin cancer in the past, frequent exposure to the sun, especially in childhood.
There are no generally accepted recommendations regarding the examination of the oral cavity in order to detect oncology, there are no official recommendations either. Cancer in the oral cavity can form on the lip, on the inner cheek, on the gum and even on the tonsils. The sooner oncology is detected, the more effective the treatment will be. Surgery is one of the earliest reference treatments for oral cancer.
Particular attention should be paid to the oral cavity of smokers and people who often drink alcohol.
Among the frequently occurring symptoms, one can distinguish such symptoms as a lump, sore, pain. In this case, you should consult a doctor!
Typically, men over 50-year-old are subjected to examination. The main tests are rectal palpation and PSA level.. Men who have relatives in the family with this type of oncology should begin to be examined regularly before other men.
Usually, among smokers, regular lung scans are a must. If you have the first symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, blood, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Symptoms that may occur and should be the reason for the prompt appeal to the attending physician:
- Founding mass
- Not passing pain
- Cough, belching, expectoration of sputum with an admixture of blood
- Digestion problems, heartburn, constipation and obstruction
- Bleeding (in feces, in sputum, in urine)
- Fatigue and weight loss.
- The appearance or evolution of a mole on the body
Factors that increase the risk of getting cancer.
The risk increases in proportion to the frequency of use (by the number of times or total dose).
Smoking increases the risk of oncology not only in the lung and oral cavity but also pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, and cervical cancer.
Alcohol abuse can lead to breast cancer, colon cancer, ENT cancer, esophageal cancer, and stomach cancer.
Physical activity is a protective factor. The use of fruits and vegetables, provided that they do not contain pesticides and hormones, is not only a protective factor but also a source of antioxidants that fights aging. Quitting alcohol and smoking is necessary to prevent the onset of cancer or relapse.
Regular examinations and consultations with your doctor will help you track risks and suspicious manifestations.
Weight loss, a constant feeling of fatigue, a feeling of obstruction of food, difficulty in breathing, the appearance of mass, cough, blood, chronic anemia, neurological deficiency are symptoms that should alert you. When the first symptoms appear, make sure to consult a doctor!