The rectum extends from the upper edge of the sphincter apparatus to the sigmoid colon, at a distance of 3 to 15 cm from the anal edge. Colorectal cancer is most often diagnosed after 50 years.
Clinical signs may include alternating diarrhea / constipation.
A narrower-shaped stool.
Constant urge to defecate.
A feeling of incomplete emptying of the rectum or a false desire to go to the toilet.
A gastroenterologist is consulted using digital rectal examination, proctoscopy and pelvic MRI. Rectal palpation is also performed.
If the tumor is located at the level of the lower rectum: from 0 to 2 cm from the upper edge of the sphincter apparatus, neoadjuvant radiotherapy can be performed. The same applies to tumors of the middle rectum: from 2 to 7 cm from the sphincter apparatus. If the tumor and affected lymph nodes are in the area of the mesorectum and / or pelvis, neoadjuvant radiotherapy (before surgery) may be indicated.
Two modes of exposure are possible: long-term regime of more than 5 weeks of treatment. The total dose of 50 Gy for 25 sessions, one session per day, five sessions per week. Oral chemotherapy, such as Xeloda or Capecitabine, is offered 5 days a week (except Saturday and Sunday). This treatment should be carried out continuously during irradiation, that is, 25 days. A short regimen treatment passes within a week. A total dose of 25 Gy for 5 sessions of 5 Gy can also be offered before rectal surgery.